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Hydrocyclones

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Hydrocyclones

PURPOSE

Hydrocyclones are used for the extraction of coarse and suspended matters from primary water.

TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS SCHEME


TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS DESCRIPTION

Hydrocyclones work using a centrifugal force field where extraction of mechanical impurities from water is performed under the influence of these forces by a factor of hundreds and thousands, exceeding gravity forces. That's why the separation velocity of particles is accelerated, whereby the duration of the water purification process is reduced and the volume of the centrifugal unit is decreased in comparison with the volume of the settler. The liquid flow regime in the centrifugal force field is turbulent.
Hydrocyclone work is based on a rotation motion. Under the influence of centrifugal force, matters with different density are separated. The liquid rotation motion is created by the energy of the current water flow. During the flow, rotation process in a circle flow is influenced by centrifugal force, raising pressure in the periphery and creating a vacuum in the center. In this case, one more property of rotation motion is used specifically to increase speed and the value of centrifugal force when reducing the rotation radius. This is achieved by liquid motion in a spiral path over a canonical surface towards the top. When the flow runs into a blind wall located near the cone vortex, liquid is inflown into the central part i.e. the vacuum zone.

As against centrifuges and centrifugal flow pumps, liquid rotation motion in hydrocyclones is performed not by means of the rotation of unit parts but by means of tangential inflow into unit case of cylindrical form. An increase in the liquid rotation speed is performed when the flow is transferred from the cylindrical part of hydrocyclone to the canonical one. At this moment, particles of mechanical impurities and suspension are dropped out to walls and transferred in a spiral path canonical surface towards the cone vortex. Afterwards they fall into the impurities collection chamber. At the same time, the clarified flow is shifted to the rotation center i.e. the vacuum zone, and comes out from the unit.

There are two main types of hydrocyclones:

  • closed (forcing). Primary water is supplied to closed hydrocyclones through a tangentially directed hose in the cylindrical part.
  • open (free-flow). To rotate water in open hydrocylinders, water from the hose is bled. This hose is located tangentially to the bottom canonical part of hydrocyclone. This location of the hose gives an opportunity to rotate liquid inside the hydrocyclone, whereby primary water is supplied from the top part of the hydrocyclone. This construction of the hydrocyclone gives an opportunity to eliminate suspended particles simultaneously with oil products which are collected in the center as being the lighter fraction. With the increase of the amount of oil products, they form a cone which increases in size and reaches the oil separation hose, located in the center. Oil products through this hose are flushed into a receiving tank.
Features:
  • Easy construction, there are no moving parts
  • Construction compactness
  • Easy maintenance