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Flotators

PURPOSE

Flotators are used for the extraction of dispersed and colloidal impurities, oil products, oils or other emulsified liquid matters and radioactive compounds from water.

TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS DESCRIPTION

Flotation is a complicated physical and chemical process which involves creating an air (gas) complex particle-bubble, floating this complex and eliminating the generated foam layer. The flotation process is continuous and multi-staged. Firstly, the air bubble and particle move closer to each other. Then the particle is fastened at the bubble surface and separated from liquid.

The midpoint of flotation process is fastening particles to air (gas) bubbles, generating flotation aggregate bubbles-particles. There are two possible ways of fastening: encountering and fastening of particles with air bubbles in water medium and direct generation of bubble at surface of particles due to gas emission, when pressure over the water medium surface is reduced. The second way of fastening is performed in a pressure flotator, which is widely used for waste water purification in all industries due to easy instrumentation, low capital and operational costs.

The waste water purification process during flotation generally involves moving the water flow and air flow (small bubbles) in one direction. Suspended particles of impurities are contained in the whole volume of waste water. When the water flow and air bubbles move together, particles are aggregated with air and surfaced generating foam, which is eliminated by special scrapers.

For the flotation process, the size of air (gas) bubbles is of great importance. If they are large, then the air bubble speed differs from the suspended particle speed to such an extent that particles cannot be fastened to the air bubble surface. An additional point is that large air bubbles mix water a lot when in rapid motion. In such a manner, they destroy already fastened air bubbles and contaminated particles.

PRESSURE FLOTATORS

PURPOSE

Flotators are used for the extraction of dispersed and colloidal impurities, oil products, oils or other emulsified liquid matters and radioactive compounds from water.

TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS DESCRIPTION

Pressure flotators are widely spread in waste water treatment processes. The advantage of this type is based on bubbles emission directly to the contamination particles located in waste water. In this regard, 8-10% of primary water in which air (or gas) is dissolved under pressure is distributed in processed water. When water saturated with air reaches a zone with lower pressure, it emits the finest air bubbles necessary for light suspension flotation. Pressure flotation gives an opportunity to easily change the amount of dissolved air (gas) and the size of bubbles input in processed water via regulating pressure, depending on the composition of suspension in primary water.

Pressure flotation units are easy to use. They provide a speed advantage for the waste water purification process in comparison with settlers.

In flotation purification technology, there is a widely spread process of compulsory saturation of liquid with air using a saturator.

Utilization of the ozone-air mixture instead of the usual air gives an opportunity to substantially improve the efficiency of the oil products’ elimination from water. Ozone is a very strong oxidant which additionally destroys some oil products.

IMPELLER FLOTATORS

PURPOSE

Impeller flotators are primarily used for waste water purification of oil factories from oil, oil products and fats.

TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS DESCRIPTION

A feature of this flotator is the existence of an impeller located in the center of the flotation chamber - a small pump-type turbine, which is like a disc with radial blades inverted upwards. The impeller provides vigorous stirring of waste water, which involves creating a great amount of small vortex shedding and gives an opportunity to receive bubbles of defined value.

Bubble size and purification efficiency depend on impeller rotation rate. The higher the speed is, the fewer bubbles will be generated and more efficient the process will be. It is necessary to take into consideration that at high speed, flow turbulence rises sharply and flaky particles can possibly be destroyed. This can lead to a loss of efficiency in the purification process.

For maximum efficient purification of waste water in the impeller flotator, it is possible to add surface-active materials in it.

TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS SCHEME

Features:
  • Continuity of operation
  • Wide range of application
  • Low capital and operational costs
  • Easy apparatus
  • Selective separation of impurities
  • Process speed advantage in comparison with settling
  • Position on frame above floor level, which gives an opportunity to derive purified water and sludge by gravity
  • Leakproof design, which reduces gas contamination of premises
  • Separation of smaller contaminants in comparison with pressure flotators
  • Compact size, which facilitates assembly, improves operation conditions and lowers energy consumption during operation
  • Stable operation under fluctuating consumption of purified water